(almost) zero allowed on a hundred | bpb
Within the socialist values of East German society were evaluated in self-employment and entrepreneurship, mostly negative. Both were regarded as a rather unwanted Remnants of capitalist society, which has, in a workers and peasants ‘ state has no place. However, one must distinguish between appearance and reality, between the pure socialist ideology and the concrete policy towards the private sector in the “real existing socialism” of the GDR.
After the founding of the GDR, the suppression of the self-employment was driven initially particularly strong in agriculture. This took the Form of forced collective of. So 71.6% of all persons employed in agriculture were in the year 1955, nor in the private sector, while this share amounted in the year 1960, only about 4 percent. In the industrial sector, the socialist government was initially more moderate. However, many entrepreneurs left in the 1950s and 1960s, the GDR, since its room for manoeuvre has been restricted in the course of time is becoming stronger. In 1972, the complete expropriation of the private industry was finally completed. Since the great expropriation-wave to the beginning of the 1970s, self-employment was allowed only in a few economic areas. It was only in the crafts and in retail trade self-employed to any significant extent. However, farms in these areas were subjected to a strict control by the state. So they were not allowed to employ, for example, more than ten people, and the state tried to limit the profits of private companies. The production of goods was operated increasingly in large state. These so-called combines, were obliged by a government-controlled Central planning Committee to produce according to certain specifications. In the year 1989, in the GDR only 185.000 self-employed, which is a ratio of about 1.8 percent based on the working age population (persons between 15 and under 65 years of age) corresponded. In the Wake of German reunification in 1990, it arrived in East Germany to a fundamental Transformation from a Central planned economy to a social market economy in West Germany since 40 years had passed. This economic upheaval was associated with a enormous start-up boom. In 1990 alone, approximately 60,000 new companies were founded, of which about 60 per cent of this green of these companies were founded on the service and tourism sector.
The start-up boom in eastern germany during the first years of the transformation process had a number of reasons:
- firstly, by the far-reaching suppression of self-employment under the East German Regime, a need to catch up on births accumulated.
- Secondly, wrapping a strong growth in demand for manufacturing and service goods were in East Germany immediately after the System has relatively few East German provider.
- Thirdly, increased unemployment in East Germany is strong, so that a lack of occupational Alternatives in the decision for self-employment is often a leading motive (“necessity entrepreneurship”). Thus, the number of employees in Eastern Germany between 1989 and 1993, fell from 9.8 to 6.2 million. The average unemployment rate was in 1993, about 15 percent.
Information about the catching-up process in terms of self-employment, the data of the working group “employment accounts of the Federation and the countries” , which make from different statistical sources, the number of working and of workers identified in the different regions. are The difference between workers and employees, the number of self-employed is obtained.
In east germany the self-employment rate (the share of the professionally self-employed in relation to the sum of the employed and unemployed)  in 1991, an average of 4.2 percent, well below the corresponding value for the old länder (7.3 percent).
Due to the interplay of “Push” (unemployment) and “Pull”factors (pent-up demand for services) increased the rate of selfemployment in East Germany to 8.6 percent in the year 2005 enormous. Thus, the level of self – employment in East Germany is similar to that of the old länder of Germany (8.9 percent) (see figure “development of the share of self-employed in East and West Germany corresponded to”). However, the rate of self-employment shows considerable regional differences (see the map “share of self-employed in the labour force (employed + unemployed) in the German länder in the year 2005”). In particular, in Brandenburg and Berlin, Saxony and Thuringia, the self-employment had reached in 2005 the level of many of the West German länder or exceeded. In contrast, the self-employment rate fell at the same time in the predominantly rural state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and in Saxony-stopping is still relatively low.
A differentiation of the self-employment according to the sectors of the economy, services and manufacturing shows that the self-employed rate in respect of all workers and the unemployed in West Germany stood at 7.4 percent in the service sector and 1.5 percent in the manufacturing sector. In Eastern Germany the corresponding independently rate was in the services sector, 6.3 per cent, and in manufacturing, 2.3 per cent commercial. The manufacturing sector also includes the construction sector. This is ignored, then a rate of 0.7 per cent and the new länder, for the old länder in a ratio of 0.9 per cent relative to all employed and unemployed persons.
- read Among the main statistical sources, in particular, the statistics of the Federal employment Agency on employees subject to social security and marginal employment, also the monthly, quarterly and annual statistics for individual sectors of the economy, and the details of the staff stand statistics about the personnel in the public service, the results of the microcensus, as well as other messages of individual institutions (e.g. monthly reports of the Federal Ministry for defence about the number of soldiers). The calculation results are checked for consistency with the other results of the labour market statistical reporting and National accounts.
- do not include The professionally self-Employed, self-employed persons in agriculture and forestry.
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Germany, year zero | bpb
Italy, Germany, 1948
Release: in 1952 (germany)
the rental: Deutsche Kinemathek
the Director: Roberto Rossellini
the screenplay: Roberto Rossellini, Carlo Lizzani, Max Kolpé, Sergio Amidei
the performers: Edmund Moeschke, Ernst Pittschau, Ingetraud Hinze, Franz-Otto Krüger, Erich Gühne, Hans Sanger, inter alia,
the camera: Robert Juillard
the runtime: 78 Min.
the Format: 35mm, black and white
the prices: International film festival of Locarno in 1948: Best Film (Roberto Rossellini), award for best original screenplay (Roberto Rossellini, Carlo Lizzani, Max Kolpé)
the FSK: 16 J.
the age recommendation: 16 J.
the grades: 11. Class
the themes: Childhood/children, (German) history, Nazism, war/war, society, film history
the subjects: English, history, Social/Society, ethics, Religion,
Berlin, shortly after the end of the war. In a confined space, the family of the 12-year-old Edmund’ with other tenants living in a severely damaged house. The boy’s mother is dead, the heart sick father tied to the bed. As the brother leaves as blended, the apartment of a soldier and the older sister only a few cigarettes of your evening bar looking for house, attributed to shoulder the care of the family on Edmunds. On one of his forays, he meets a former teacher who is suspended as a national socialist from the school and from the black-and-trade lives. Edmund reported to him by his father, to which the man replied, the Weak and the Sick must die so the Strong could. As Edmund kills his father with poison, denies the teacher is outraged to have him come. In despair over his act, rushes the Boy to death.
Germany year zero is one of the most important films of the italian neorealism of the 1940s. like many of his comrades-in-arms turned from roberto rossellini with amateur actors in original locations, to the common eskapist entertainment oppose a cinema, which, given the war-induced misery of the reality of life of the little people required saw. so germany year zero the material poverty and moral squalor of the germans after the end of the war in extraordinary ruthlessness – which is why the film met with in this country, first of all, a broad refusal. the scene of the destroyed berlin, captured in the endurance of camera movements, gives the action a haunting documentary effect. the awkward acting of the performers reinforced this reality binding and acts at the same time, in the brechtian sense, dissociative, whereby a reflection is stimulated.
Rossellini’s film is less than the settlement with the ns-understand regime. the mere fact that a child is at the centre, reveals that the perspective is more on the present and the future – on the question of whether there was in germany a new start from zero, and whether and how the fascism in the people continues. in this respect, germany year zero not only as a “document”, as a close-to-reality representation of the post-war everyday, in the classroom involved, but also as a stimulus to discuss the individually-psychological impact of totalitarian systems on the example of german national socialism. in addition, the film is suitable as a starting point to deal with the italian neo-realism.
The information and materials
bpb.de: Dossier film Canon: Germany year Zero
media culture.online: Germany year Zero
More on this topic kinofenster.de:
Lore (film review by 05.10.2012)
After that, it would have to be beautiful (film review by 01.11.2001)
The easiest way to orgasm – a guide for women
Relax, to enjoy the pleasure of light a couple of candles – these are to be found in the internet in abundance. the number of women who, thanks to a romantic flickering candle gets an orgasm, however, tend towards zero. as helpless encouragement of the sentence follows, therefore, still mostly: “sex without orgasm is wonderful.” and the placement of the “you’re not alone”-feeling: “a lot of women come only irregularly, or never to a climax.” what’s the point of the orgasm-free woman? in the best case, a consolation, in the worst case, nothing.
We deal with the issue so specifically: what can i do as a woman, actively, to come to the sex climax? the solution: tension!
Hunter: the vigil (tabletop game)
Even in industrialized countries such as the united states of america, zoonoses such as leptospirosis are often mistaken for influenza. the symptoms are nonspecific, making diagnosis difficult, a characteristic of many zoonotic. prevention of zoonoses consists of a combination of diseases, to eradicate, to reduce animal vaccines, human vaccines, work environment sanitation, cleaning and protection of open wounds, appropriate food handling and preparation techniques, such as pasteurization of milk and thorough cooking of meat , use of personal protective equipment such as boots in rice fields and the prudent use of antibiotics the growth of resistant strains. control technologies and preventive behaviours should be conceptualized in terms of pathways, agents and hosts and specifically on the four transmission paths. diseases of the respiratory system, the diversity and the extent of exposure since the animal production in the context of respiratory diseases the main health problem. the type of work most commonly associated with respiratory diseases comprises grain production and handling and working in animal confinement units for dairy farming. agricultural respiratory disease can result from exposures to a variety of dusts, gas, agricultural chemicals, and infectious agents. dust exposures, the be divided into of organic components in the first place, those and those, mainly of inorganic components.
Ten legendary lost cities, the have shown from the past
Casual wear is suggested for sightseeing and daytime running. dress code for most evenings is smart casual. hotels, most meals, all activities in the itinerary pages, airport transfers in select cities, gratuities to hotel porters, restaurant staff and local guides. what is not included in the trip price?
The setting encourages it actually, because, as hunters usually goes after each and every type of monster in the setting.
Key term s hunting child predators with canada’s free vigil rival canadian groups are looking for a team to publicly shame adults data with underage young people are looking for. but is it possible to be an ethical avenger? he asked for a photo, according to cat, so she sent him a selfie: they had for two days an e-mail was when kat decided to see how the man on the news would react.
Sweet sixteen soon eh? but after a whole month of e-mails, and cancelled plans, he opted for a mcdonald’s outside of vancouver, canada, where they both lived. he always wanted to dress up for the occasion. before leaving that night in november, according to your screenshots, he cat sent a photo of himself: but the man has no car, so he manages to walk into mcdonalds with a damp hair.
The place is packed with young families and chattering young people. two men huddle in the middle of the restaurant:
Shohei ohtani and jameson taillon for fantasy baseball
Aegis kai doru, on the search for, and collect powerful artifacts. also the loyalists of thule and ones in ascending order, if the situation calls for it. the null mysteriis might fall under this. the null mysteriis might also fall under this. most of the fall in this middle zone called “real scientists” network zero, in any case, by this fall. aliens and monsters of all deaths final:
A broken, upside-down cross.
The 20 year japanese bear market in real estate makes its way into the united states. the house prices in the u. lower numbers of jobs, higher costs, shadow inventory, and big government all the expenditure with a path of real estate malaise-align. what happens if the real estate prices will remain for another decade? as i see on the economic development in our nation including the jobs we are adding , it is becoming increasingly clear that we can enter a time when low-wage jobs, and prices remain sluggish home advance dominate for a decade.
Why should this occur? it is likely to mention useful to that case-shiller has made a 20-city index is already the rewind button and many of the subway have surpassed already the lost decade mark in prices. this is the result of a bubble.
Delivery from the usa ,uk to india
Share 50 of the best from both worlds: the ultimate hipster mode of transport, the pennyfathing will make a statement while you are riding to inhale your coffee: instead of a regular espresso drink, you can smoke your daily caffeine hipsters made have always been famous like old-school technology like record players and typewriters, but also fans of products, such as iphones and laptops. now there is a product where you can have the best of both worlds-the usb typewriter.
Another product from a bygone era hipsters love the pennyfathing bike. and while you are out and about and your pennyfathing riding, you may caffeine need.
The term is sometimes broadly defined as to “knowledge meant only for certain people or knowledge that must be hidden to be kept”, but for most practicing occultists it is simply the study of a deeper spiritual reality that extends beyond pure reason and the physical sciences.
Encourage you to use this list to warn others, children especially, wearing deliberately and ads because they are popular. the word occult comes from the latin word occultus clandestine, hidden, secret , referring to “knowledge of the hidden”. in the medical sense it is used to refer to a structure or process that is hidden, e. the word has many uses in the english language, people means “knowledge of the paranormal” how to “knowledge of the measurable” against, in general, as a science referred to.
The term is sometimes broadly defined as to “knowledge meant only for certain people or knowledge that must be hidden to be kept”, but for most practicing occultists it is simply the study of a deeper spiritual reality that extends beyond pure reason and the physical sciences. the terms esoteric and arcane can have a very similar meaning, and the three terms are often interchangeable. a universal symbol for spiritual sight, inner vision, higher knowledge, insight into occult mysteries.
Masonic symbol for the all-seeing eye of god – a mystical distortion of the omniscient all-knowing biblical god. this simple 17. century “sign” illustrates the blending of geometric shapes – circle, triangle, square, – what are the different “elements”, for spells and magic. it is interesting to note that some of the more popular occult computer games also for magic “include required elements” and the spell casting. to bring a spell, such as this little navajo bear earring , worn good luck and protection against illness, accidents and evil forces.
Popular with school-aged children today, this symbol for anarchy, the news that the most popular video games penetrates through, role-playing games, film and television suits.
Dating a capricorn man & woman
To go to a party. you go in a bar. the film premiere. you make a picnic in the park. you go to a funfair. you go to a circus. you go to a film festival. to the aquarium and spot some fish or sharks!
Tips for dating aquarius woman
Take a look and then you go out and continue to use it! otherwise, you can set the priorities of his, unless both of them are just a quick fling your values are not the same as a younger woman cheyenne bostock – askcheyb.
Were you hurt careful of a twin, however, because they are often more sensitive than they appear, and you will leave love behind quickly if they feel that their partner is not worthy of your trust.
Pinterest dating a gemini woman: overview of the dating gemini woman will keep you on your toes, for you of the twins symbolizes. more dating tips gemini to keep the females! because your mind is a mile a minute, the only way to catch the attention of this air sign of the zodiac is in the conversation can participate.
And will join you in a bit, for the gemini woman is never alone. you will be surrounded by friends, family, acquaintances, or even an ex who keeps you still in contact. since the gemini lady is always on the go, she tends to leave a trail of loved ones behind, but they always find their way to you. you need to keep up with the boisterous conversation, to get you interested enough to keep for a long relationship laser. gemini woman in relationships, when you intellect your hike, and improve the brilliant conversation, the woman began originally twins follow, you will be more than just a first date points.
So make sure it never turns into idle chatter. because nothing is in idle with this woman. your travel dates and where you can enjoy life to the fullest. the twins have an open mind has females, so you can do quieter things like dinner and a movie, as long as the next time is bar hopping and dancing.
Learning lessons all about the shooter, a man yells a warning to the cancer woman. he is reckless, restless, and everything about the latest risk and adrenaline. meanwhile, everything about the cancer woman turns the protect man, so you would think. she is affectionate, emotionally and to take care of him – a thought that fills him with horror, as he much to take, or not to self would prefer. sagittarius man and cancer woman compatibility often fails at this first hurdle, before the couple even get to know properly. the cancer woman can teach the sagittarius man and for all times the value of laying down roots and close to those of staying, you love. unfortunately, for man and cancer woman compatibility to protect, not a partner really, those lesson to learn just yet. even though you only mean to love him, her constant fussing over him, drives him to despair and want him to move away. the cancer-woman, however, never forgets.
The sagittarius man
Because sagittarius is ruled by jupiter, the planet of expansion and luck, these women are for their optimism and good humor famous. you can feel easily on the world with your big ideas and promises of wonderful things to come. but since your judgment tends to be sometimes faulty, their gambles often not come off, leave other leave feeling down.
A few sagittarian women would intentionally lead set you but to mislead, or be dishonest in any way. guided by an innate sense of honor and integrity, most of them try to live their lives according to high principles – and they will expect you to do the same. protect women rarely try to hide your strong need for personal freedom, which gives them their characteristic resistance to with aversion to monotony, bound and marked, and routine.
Sagittarius sagittarius women are wild, independent, fun, friendly and open-minded. enjoy it in a sexual way and you are determined to live life to the fullest. a sagittarius personality is vibrant, curious, and exciting. the woman who is born under the zodiac sign of sagittarius is an honest woman, who always speaks her mind, and the values of freedom and independence. if you seduce the sagittarius woman, you should go on a date questions free. she loves adventures and long conversations.
However, even though she is wild, do not expect you to fall in love with them immediately.
Dating a sagittarius woman
Parts of the body ruled: hips, thighs, muscles motto: confidently optimistic, the sagittarius woman is happy to see what comes of each new day. travel, work, or play, this lady looks for adventure and increased knowledge in everything she does. sagittarius woman in love love is one of the eternal mysteries for our archer woman.
As with other impatient signs you is likely to be the big picture rather than the details prefer, which may result in her being a little philosophical.
Free pisces man and aries woman compatibility horoscope, in accordance with his zodiac sign, pisces man loves mystery and mysticism, he tries to create for itself a picture of romance – a traveler whose soul is darkness, and who knows far more than he shows to others. probably one day he will use this to win a aries woman. his magical indecision, with a mystery to be combined, as if the charm of the aries woman look straight and strong, you want to be in his soul, to understand him, and learn, a simple adjustment in life.
A union between man pisces and aries woman will be based on contrasts: aries woman does not know how to maneuver. as she tries to achieve something, you will go directly, without workarounds. you will spend some time to get used to each other, come around, and coordinate their various tactics in the relationship. fiery and passionate aries woman will, by to be mistaken for some of the fish people detachment and indecision something, but first of all, you will be to explain to your partner qualities as restlessness in front of her tilted, the queen.
According to the compatibility horoscope, pisces man and aries woman, their union is a mutual, a hot passion and attraction to each other, which sometimes leads to intoxication, and tomorrow – periods of deep indifference and irritation, if you doubt both of them continue to the continuation of such a relationship. in situations of conflict, in this association, many of these will be, fish-man, is inclined in every possible way, the sharp angles and to handle traps to avoid for as long as possible, to aggression, and try, his partner aggression to suppress, in the thickness of the relationship sent
But his responsibility aries woman is left even more upset: